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The Edict implicitly granted Christianity the status of " religio licita ", a worship recognised and accepted by the Roman Empire.

It was the first edict legalising Christianity, preceding the Edict of Milan by two years. He considered making Serdica the capital of the Byzantine Empire instead of Constantinople.

The city was destroyed in the invasion of the Huns and laid in ruins for a century [75] It was rebuilt by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I.

During the reign of Justinian it flourished, being surrounded with great fortress walls whose remnants can still be seen today. Serdica became part of the First Bulgarian Empire during the reign of Khan Krum in , after a long siege.

The fall of the strategic city prompted a major and ultimately disastrous invasion of Bulgaria by the Byzantine emperor Nikephoros I , which led to demise at the hands of the Bulgarian army.

One of them was Samuil , who was eventually crowned Emperor of Bulgaria in In , the Byzantine Emperor Basil II laid siege to Sredets but after 20 days of fruitless assaults the garrison broke out and forced the Byzantines to abandon the campaign.

The city eventually fell to the Byzantine Empire in , following the Byzantine conquest of Bulgaria. Sredets joined the uprising of Peter Delyan in — in a failed attempt to restore Bulgarian independence and was the last stronghold of the rebels, led by the local commander Botko.

In the 13th and 14th centuries Sredets was an important spiritual and literary hub with a cluster of 14 monasteries in its vicinity, that were eventually destroyed by the Ottomans.

The city produced multicolored sgraffito ceramics, jewelry and ironware. In the late 14th century the city became the seat of newly established Ottoman Sanjak of Sofia.

Following the defeat of the crusader forces in , the city's Christians faced persecution. In Sofia became the capital of the Ottoman province beylerbeylik of Rumelia for about three centuries.

During that time Sofia was the largest import-export-base in modern-day Bulgaria for the caravan trade with the Republic of Ragusa.

In the 15th and 16th century, Sofia was expanded by Ottoman building activity. Public investments in infrastructure, education and local economy brought greater diversity to the city.

When it comes to the cityscape, 16th century sources mention eight Friday mosques , three public libraries, numerous schools, 12 churches, three synagogues, and the largest bedesten market of the Balkans.

Most prominent churches such as Saint Sofia and Saint George were converted into mosques, and a number of new ones were constructed, including Banya Bashi Mosque built by the renowned Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan.

In total there were 11 big and over small mosques by the 17th century. Sofia entered a period of economic and political decline in the 17th century, accelerated during the period of anarchy in the Ottoman Balkans of the late 18th and early 19th century, when local Ottoman warlords ravaged the countryside.

Since the 18th century the beylerbeys of Rumelia often stayed in Bitola , which became the official capital of the province in Sofia remained the seat of a sanjak district.

By the 19th century the Bulgarian population had two schools and seven churches, contributing to the Bulgarian National Revival. In Nedelya Petkova created the first Bulgarian school for women in the city.

In was inaugurated the first chitalishte in Sofia — a Bulgarian cultural institution. In the Bulgarian revolutionary Vasil Levski established a revolutionary committee in the city and in the neighbouring villages.

Folling his capture in , Vasil Levski was transferred and hanged in Sofia by the Ottomans. Many Bulgarian residents of Sofia armed themselves and sided with the Russian forces.

Iosif Gurko on 4 January It was proposed as a capital by Marin Drinov and was accepted as such on 3 April By the time of its liberation the population of the city was 11, Most mosques in Sofia were destroyed in that war, seven of them destroyed in one night in December when a thunderstorm masked the noise of the explosions arranged by Russian military engineers.

For a few decades after the liberation, Sofia experienced large population growth, mainly by migration from other regions of the Principality Kingdom since of Bulgaria, and from the still Ottoman Macedonia and Thrace.

In , the first electric lightbulb in the city was turned on. In the Second Balkan War , Bulgaria was fighting alone practically all of its neighbouring countries.

When the Romanian Army entered Vrazhdebna in , then a village 11 kilometres 7 miles from Sofia, now a suburb, [] this prompted the Tsardom of Bulgaria to capitulate.

In , a terrorist act of ultra-leftists failed their attempted assassination of the king but resulted in the destruction of the Saint Nedelya Church and many victims.

As a consequence of the bombings thousands of buildings were destroyed or damaged including the Capital Library and thousands of books.

In , the communist Fatherland Front took power. The transformations of Bulgaria into the People's Republic of Bulgaria in and into the Republic of Bulgaria in marked significant changes in the city's appearance.

The population of Sofia expanded rapidly due to migration from rural regions. New residential areas were built in the outskirts of the city, like Druzhba, Mladost and Lyulin.

During the Communist Party rule, a number of the city's most emblematic streets and squares were renamed for ideological reasons, with the original names restored after The Georgi Dimitrov Mausoleum , where Dimitrov's body had been preserved in a similar way to the Lenin mausoleum , was demolished in In Sofia there are , dwellings and , buildings.

According to modern records, 39, dwellings were constructed until , , between and , , between and , 57, in the 90s and , between and Until , 13, buildings were constructed and between 10, and 20, in each following decade.

These vary from Christian Roman architecture and medieval Bulgarian fortresses to Neoclassicism and prefabricated Socialist-era apartment blocks.

A number of ancient Roman, Byzantine and medieval Bulgarian buildings are preserved in the centre of the city.

These include the 4th century Rotunda of St. George , the walls of the Serdica fortress and the partially preserved Amphitheatre of Serdica.

After the Liberation War, knyaz Alexander Battenberg invited architects from Austria—Hungary to shape the new capital's architectural appearance.

The architecture of Sofia's centre is thus a combination of Neo-Baroque , Neo- Rococo , Neo-Renaissance and Neoclassicism , with the Vienna Secession also later playing an important part, but it is most typically Central European.

After World War II and the establishment of a Communist government in Bulgaria in , the architectural style was substantially altered.

Stalinist Gothic public buildings emerged in the centre, notably the spacious government complex around The Largo , Vasil Levski Stadium, the Cyril and Methodius National Library and others.

As the city grew outwards, the then-new neighbourhoods were dominated by many concrete tower blocks , prefabricated panel apartment buildings and examples of Brutalist architecture.

After the abolition of Communism in , Sofia witnessed the construction of whole business districts and neighbourhoods, as well as modern skryscraper-like glass-fronted office buildings, but also top-class residential neighbourhoods.

However, the end of the old administration and centrally planned system also paved the way for chaotic and unrestrained construction, which continues today.

Interior of the ancient Saint Sofia Church. Neoclassical architecture , Poligrafia office center. The Central Sofia Market Hall.

Hotel Rodina , an example of Brutalist architecture. Neo-Gothic architecture in Sofia. Baroque Revival architecture.

The Banya Bashi Mosque an example of Ottoman architecture. The Sofia Synagogue in the style of Moorish Revival architecture.

National Gallery for Foreign Art. Millennium Center is an example of contemporary construction in Sofia.

The city has an extensive green belt. Some of the neighbourhoods constructed after are densely built up and lack green spaces.

There are four principal parks — Borisova gradina in the city centre and the Southern , Western and Northern parks. Vitosha mountain is a popular hiking destination due to its proximity and ease of access via car and public transport.

Two functioning cable cars provide year long access from the outskirts of the city. The mountain offers favourable skiing conditions during the winter.

During the s and the s multiple ski slopes of varying difficulty were made available. Skiing equipment can be rented and skiing lessons are available.

However, due to the bad communication between the private offshore company that runs the resort and Sofia municipality, most of the ski areas have been left to decay in the last 10 years, so that only one chairlift and one slope work.

Sofia Municipality is identical to Sofia City Province , which is distinct from Sofia Province , which surrounds but does not include the capital itself.

Besides the city proper, the 24 districts of Sofia Municipality encompass three other towns and 34 villages.

The assembly members are chosen every four years. The common head of Sofia Municipality and all the 38 settlements is the mayor of Sofia.

Sofia is the seat of the executive Council of Ministers , legislative National Assembly and judiciary Supreme Court and Constitutional Court bodies of Bulgaria, as well as all government agencies, ministries, the National Bank , and the delegation of the European Commission.

A refurbishment project is due to be completed in mid, [] while the old National Assembly building will become a museum or will only host ceremonial political events.

The National Assembly building. The edifice of the Presidency also houses the Ministry of Education and Science. Under Bulgaria's centralised political system, Sofia concentrates much of the political and financial resources of the country.

It is the only city in Bulgaria to host three electoral constituencies: the 23rd , 24th and 25th Multi-member Constituencies , which together field 42 mandates in the member National Assembly.

With a murder rate of 1. According to the director of Sofia District Police Directorate, the largest share of the crimes are thefts, making up Increasing are frauds, drug-related crimes, petty theft and vandalism.

Sofia concentrates the majority of Bulgaria's leading performing arts troupes. Theatre is by far the most popular form of performing art, and theatrical venues are among the most visited, second only to cinemas.

There were 3, theatric performances with , people attending in The National Opera and Ballet of Bulgaria is a combined opera and ballet collective established in Regular performances began in Some of Bulgaria's most famous operatic singers, such as Nicolai Ghiaurov and Ghena Dimitrova , made their first appearances on the stage of the National Opera and Ballet.

Cinema is the most popular form of entertainment: there were more than , film shows with a total attendance exceeding 2,, in Odeon not part of the Odeon Cinemas chain shows exclusively European and independent American films, as well as 20th century classics.

The Boyana Film studios was at the centre of a once-thriving domestic film industry, which declined significantly after Bulgaria's largest art museums are located in the central areas of the city.

Its largest branch is Kvadrat , located on the NFGA premises, where some 2, works are on display in twenty eight exhibition halls. The crypt of the Alexander Nevsky cathedral is another branch of the National Gallery.

It holds a collection of Eastern Orthodox icons from the 9th to the 19th century. The National History Museum , located in Boyana , it has a vast collection of more than , historical items dating from Prehistory to the modern era, although only 10, of them are permanently displayed due to the lack of space.

Two natural sciences museums—the Natural History Museum and Earth and Man —display minerals, animal species alive and taxidermic and rare materials.

The Ethnographic Museum and the Museum of Military History hold large collections of Bulgarian folk costumes and armaments, respectively.

The Polytechnical Museum has more than 1, technological items on display. The SS. Cyril and Methodius National Library , the foremost information repository in the country, holds some 1,, books and more than 7,, documents, manuscripts, maps and other items.

Top-circulation newspapers include 24 Chasa and Trud. With their vital, humanistic realism they are a Renaissance phenomenon at its culmination phase in the context of the common-European art.

Sofia is one of the most visited tourist destinations in Bulgaria alongside coastal and mountain resorts.

Among its highlights is the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral , one of the symbols of Bulgaria, constructed in the late 19th century.

It occupies an area of 3, square metres 34, square feet and can hold 10, people. The city center contains many remains of ancient Serdica that have been excavated and are on public display, including Complex Ancient Serdica , eastern gate, western gate, city walls, thermal baths, 4th c.

George Rotunda , amphitheatre of Serdica , the tombs and basilicas under the basilica of St. Sofia's geographic location , in the foothills of the weekend retreat Vitosha mountain, further adds to the city's specific atmosphere.

A large number of sports clubs are based in the city. During the Communist era, most sports clubs concentrated on all-round sporting development, therefore CSKA , Levski , Lokomotiv and Slavia are dominant not only in football, but in many other team sports as well.

Basketball and volleyball also have strong traditions in Sofia. The Bulgarian Volleyball Federation is the world's second-oldest, and it was an exhibition tournament organised by the BVF in Sofia that convinced the International Olympic Committee to include volleyball as an olympic sport in There are some ten [] tennis court complexes within the city including the one founded by former WTA top-five athlete Magdalena Maleeva.

Sofia applied to host the Winter Olympic Games in and in , coming second and third respectively. The city was also an applicant for the Winter Olympics , but was not selected as candidate.

In addition, Sofia hosted EuroBasket and the and Summer Universiades , as well as the and winter editions. The city is home to a number of large sports venues, including the 43,seat Vasil Levski National Stadium which hosts international football matches, as well as Balgarska Armia Stadium , Georgi Asparuhov Stadium and Lokomotiv Stadium , the main venues for outdoor musical concerts.

Armeets Arena holds many indoor events and has a capacity of up to 19, people depending on its use. The venue was inaugurated on 30 July , and the first event it hosted was a friendly volleyball match between Bulgaria and Serbia.

There are more than fifteen swimming complexes in the city, most of them outdoor. Sofia was designated as European Capital of Sport in The decision was announced in November by the Evaluation Committee of ACES Europe, on the grounds that "the city is a good example of sport for all, as means to improve healthy lifestyle, integration and education, which are the basis of the initiative.

According to data, the city has a population of 1,, and the whole Sofia Capital Municipality of 1,, The ratio of women per 1, men was 1, The birth rate per people was The natural growth rate during was 0.

The considerable immigration to the capital from poorer regions of the country, as well as urbanisation, are among the other reasons for the increase in Sofia's population.

The infant mortality rate was 5. The median age is 38 though. According to the census, 1,, citizens According to the census, throughout the whole municipality some , people The data says that roughly a third of the total population have already earned a university degree.

Of the population aged 15—64 — , people within the municipality The largest group are occupied in trading, followed by those in manufacturing industry.

Within the municipality, three-quarters, or , people are recorded as having access to television at home and , Out of , homes — , have connection to the communal sanitary sewer , while 2, do not have any.

Of these do not have any water supply and have other than communal. Over The largest group of the population aged over 20 are recorded to live within marriage The families that consist of two people are Sofia was declared the national capital in One year later, in , it was the fifth-largest city in the country after Plovdiv , Varna , Ruse and Shumen.

Plovdiv remained the most populous Bulgarian town until when Sofia took the lead. Shopi speak the Western Bulgarian dialects.

The city is ranked 62nd among financial centres worldwide. Historically, after World War II and the era of industrialisation under socialism, the city and its surrounding areas expanded rapidly and became the most heavily industrialised region of the country, with numerous factories producing steel, pig iron, machinery, industrial equipment, electronics, trams, chemicals, textiles, food.

The most dynamic sectors include Information technology IT and manufacturing. Sofia is a regional IT hub, ranking second among the Top 10 fastest growing tech centers in Europe in terms of annual growth of active members.

There are 16 industrial and logistics parks in Sofia, some sprawling to towns in neighbouring Sofia Province , such as Bozhurishte , Kostinbrod and Elin Pelin.

With its developing infrastructure and strategic location, Sofia is a major hub for international railway and automobile transport.

The Central Railway Station is the primary hub for domestic and international rail transport, carried out by Bulgarian State Railways BDZ , the national rail company headquartered in the city.

Line 1 provides a connection to Plovdiv , the second-largest city in Bulgaria, while Line 2 is the longest national railway and connects Sofia and Varna , the largest coastal city.

Lines 5 and 13 are shorter and provide connections to Kulata and Bankya , respectively. Sofia Airport handled 7,, passengers in Six new stations were opened in , two more in April , and eleven more in August In seven new stations were opened and the underground extended to Sofia Airport on its Northern branch and to Business Park Sofia on its Southern branch.

A third line is under construction and is expected to be finished in the second half of There are around 13, taxi cabs operating in the city.

Private automobile ownership has grown rapidly in the s; more than 1,, cars were registered in Sofia after The city has the 4th-highest number of automobiles per capita in the European Union at This is noticeably changing in the past years.

There are different boulevards and streets in the city with a higher amount of traffic than others. These include Tsarigradsko shose, Cherni Vrah, Bulgaria, Slivnitsa and Todor Aleksandrov boulevards, as well as the city's ring road, where long chains of cars are formed at peak hours and traffic jams occur regularly.

The extension of the underground system is hoped to alleviate the city's immense traffic problems. Sofia has an extensive district heating system based around four combined heat and power CHP plants and boiler stations.

Virtually the entire city , households and 5, companies is centrally heated, using residual heat from electricity generation 3, MW and gas- and oil-fired heating furnaces; total heat capacity is 4, MW.

Much of Bulgaria's educational capacity is concentrated in Sofia. There are general, 11 special and seven arts or sports schools, 56 vocational gymnasiums and colleges, and four independent colleges.

A number of secondary language schools provide education in a selected foreign language. These are among the most sought-after secondary schools, along with Vladislav the Grammarian 73rd Secondary School and the High School of Mathematics , which topped the preference list for high school candidates.

Cyril and Methodius National Library are located in Sofia. BAS is the centrepiece of scientific research in Bulgaria, employing more than 4, scientists in various institutes.

Its Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy will operate the largest cyclotron in the country. Sofia is twinned with:.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Capital of Bulgaria. This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. For the given name, see Sophia given name.

For other uses, see Sofia disambiguation. For the given names, see Sofija given name and Sofiya given name.

Capital city in Sofia City, Bulgaria. Coat of arms. A map of Sofia Valley. Vitosha is in the south; the Balkan Mountains define the valley's northern fringes.

The Iskar flows north and forms the Iskar Gorge. A view of the valley from the south. The Balkan Mountains and the beginning of the Iskar Gorge are visible in the distance.

Main article: History of Sofia. See also: Timeline of Sofia. Socialist-era housing in Mladost. Business Park Sofia. The Russian Church. See also: Tourist attractions in Sofia and List of churches in Sofia.

See also: Art galleries in Sofia. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Bulgaria.

Europe portal European Union portal Bulgaria portal. Sofia Municipality. Archived from the original on 19 August Retrieved 16 October Duke University Press.

Ancient Gold: The Wealth of the Thracians. NY: Harry N. Abrams Inc. The Thracians, Iztok — Zapad, Sofia, Retrieved 13 September Retrieved 12 February Britannica Educational Publishing.

Education in Cities. Evan's Brothers. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 27 December Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 11 April USA Today.

Archived from the original PDF on 15 July Retrieved 15 July The Emperor Constantine. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. Wiki User Answered She makes DVDs about kundalini yoga.

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THE FIFTH ELEMENT - Then and Now ⭐ Real Name and Age

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sophia goth(フィフスエレメント) Archived from the Nia Peeples on 14 May Related Questions. London : Dennis Publishing : Which actress has Stephen Spieblerg as a godfather and Sophia Loren as a godmother? It is situated in western Bulgaria, at the northern foot of the Vitosha mountain, in the Sofia Valley that is surrounded by the Balkan mountains to the north. Sophia Goth

The natural growth rate during was 0. The considerable immigration to the capital from poorer regions of the country, as well as urbanisation, are among the other reasons for the increase in Sofia's population.

The infant mortality rate was 5. The median age is 38 though. According to the census, 1,, citizens According to the census, throughout the whole municipality some , people The data says that roughly a third of the total population have already earned a university degree.

Of the population aged 15—64 — , people within the municipality The largest group are occupied in trading, followed by those in manufacturing industry.

Within the municipality, three-quarters, or , people are recorded as having access to television at home and , Out of , homes — , have connection to the communal sanitary sewer , while 2, do not have any.

Of these do not have any water supply and have other than communal. Over The largest group of the population aged over 20 are recorded to live within marriage The families that consist of two people are Sofia was declared the national capital in One year later, in , it was the fifth-largest city in the country after Plovdiv , Varna , Ruse and Shumen.

Plovdiv remained the most populous Bulgarian town until when Sofia took the lead. Shopi speak the Western Bulgarian dialects. The city is ranked 62nd among financial centres worldwide.

Historically, after World War II and the era of industrialisation under socialism, the city and its surrounding areas expanded rapidly and became the most heavily industrialised region of the country, with numerous factories producing steel, pig iron, machinery, industrial equipment, electronics, trams, chemicals, textiles, food.

The most dynamic sectors include Information technology IT and manufacturing. Sofia is a regional IT hub, ranking second among the Top 10 fastest growing tech centers in Europe in terms of annual growth of active members.

There are 16 industrial and logistics parks in Sofia, some sprawling to towns in neighbouring Sofia Province , such as Bozhurishte , Kostinbrod and Elin Pelin.

With its developing infrastructure and strategic location, Sofia is a major hub for international railway and automobile transport.

The Central Railway Station is the primary hub for domestic and international rail transport, carried out by Bulgarian State Railways BDZ , the national rail company headquartered in the city.

Line 1 provides a connection to Plovdiv , the second-largest city in Bulgaria, while Line 2 is the longest national railway and connects Sofia and Varna , the largest coastal city.

Lines 5 and 13 are shorter and provide connections to Kulata and Bankya , respectively. Sofia Airport handled 7,, passengers in Six new stations were opened in , two more in April , and eleven more in August In seven new stations were opened and the underground extended to Sofia Airport on its Northern branch and to Business Park Sofia on its Southern branch.

A third line is under construction and is expected to be finished in the second half of There are around 13, taxi cabs operating in the city.

Private automobile ownership has grown rapidly in the s; more than 1,, cars were registered in Sofia after The city has the 4th-highest number of automobiles per capita in the European Union at This is noticeably changing in the past years.

There are different boulevards and streets in the city with a higher amount of traffic than others. These include Tsarigradsko shose, Cherni Vrah, Bulgaria, Slivnitsa and Todor Aleksandrov boulevards, as well as the city's ring road, where long chains of cars are formed at peak hours and traffic jams occur regularly.

The extension of the underground system is hoped to alleviate the city's immense traffic problems.

Sofia has an extensive district heating system based around four combined heat and power CHP plants and boiler stations. Virtually the entire city , households and 5, companies is centrally heated, using residual heat from electricity generation 3, MW and gas- and oil-fired heating furnaces; total heat capacity is 4, MW.

Much of Bulgaria's educational capacity is concentrated in Sofia. There are general, 11 special and seven arts or sports schools, 56 vocational gymnasiums and colleges, and four independent colleges.

A number of secondary language schools provide education in a selected foreign language. These are among the most sought-after secondary schools, along with Vladislav the Grammarian 73rd Secondary School and the High School of Mathematics , which topped the preference list for high school candidates.

Cyril and Methodius National Library are located in Sofia. BAS is the centrepiece of scientific research in Bulgaria, employing more than 4, scientists in various institutes.

Its Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy will operate the largest cyclotron in the country. Sofia is twinned with:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Capital of Bulgaria. This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. For the given name, see Sophia given name. For other uses, see Sofia disambiguation.

For the given names, see Sofija given name and Sofiya given name. Capital city in Sofia City, Bulgaria. Coat of arms.

A map of Sofia Valley. Vitosha is in the south; the Balkan Mountains define the valley's northern fringes. The Iskar flows north and forms the Iskar Gorge.

A view of the valley from the south. The Balkan Mountains and the beginning of the Iskar Gorge are visible in the distance.

Main article: History of Sofia. See also: Timeline of Sofia. Socialist-era housing in Mladost. Business Park Sofia. The Russian Church. See also: Tourist attractions in Sofia and List of churches in Sofia.

See also: Art galleries in Sofia. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Bulgaria.

Europe portal European Union portal Bulgaria portal. Sofia Municipality. Archived from the original on 19 August Retrieved 16 October Duke University Press.

Ancient Gold: The Wealth of the Thracians. NY: Harry N. Abrams Inc. The Thracians, Iztok — Zapad, Sofia, Retrieved 13 September Retrieved 12 February Britannica Educational Publishing.

Education in Cities. Evan's Brothers. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 27 December Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 11 April USA Today.

Archived from the original PDF on 15 July Retrieved 15 July The Emperor Constantine. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N.

Thracians, Sofia, p. Iztok — Zapad, Three-thousand-year-old Hat. Michigan University : Golden Vine Publishers. International history of city development 8 ed.

Michigan University : Free Press of Glencoe. Archived from the original on 19 December Retrieved 14 September Pennsylvania State University : Grolier Incorporated.

Capital Municipality. Retrieved 20 October Guide Bulgaria. Retrieved 19 February Iskar River System. Archived from the original on 7 December Retrieved 27 April The Sofia Globe.

Retrieved 26 October Agence France-Presse. The New York Times. Retrieved 15 October Archived from the original on 26 October European Commission.

Bulgarian National Television. Archived from the original on 27 October Retrieved 20 December Kelcey; Norbert Müller 7 June Plants and Habitats of European Cities.

Acta Zoologica Bulgarica. Archived from the original on 5 September Akademai Klado, Hilfe, eroberte das Land der Serden bei Dio Segetika und kam plündernd ins.

Roman cities in Bulgaria. In Bowman, Alan K. The Cambridge ancient history: The crisis of empire, A. The Cambridge ancient history. Cambridge University Press.

University of Minnesota. A biography of the Emperor Aurelian AD — Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. Bosworth, E. Consulted online on 23 January Drustvo Istoricara Bosne i Hercegovine, Sarajevo.

Balkan tourist, Archived from the original on 5 March Retrieved 8 August Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. In the first electric lamp lit the streets of Sofia.

Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 22 December Sofia City Place-names Commission, 22 January Sofia: National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria.

Archived from the original PDF on 15 February Encyclopedia of Figurative Arts in Bulgaria, volume 1. Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.

Retrieved 24 May Archived from the original on 20 June Retrieved 29 April Retrieved 21 August Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 2 November Central Election Commission.

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